You will be aware of the fact that the viral infections that infect our body,can majorly affect the human body.The most relatable,easiest and latest example of this is corona.The most dangerous and infectious virus is HIV.After that comes Hepatitis B,which directly damages the liver.Today,we are going to discuss about hepatitis B in detail.
A virus is basically of 2 types-RNA and DNA.Hepatitis B virus is a DNA type virus.It belongs to Hepadnaviridae family.
Hepatitis B does not has any kind of relation with Hepatitis C or Hepatitis A virus.Other than humans,this Hepatitis B virus is also found in mammals like Chimpanzee and other mammals also.
The thing to discuss about Hepatitis B here is the journey of Hepatitis B in human body and how it spreads.The moment a person gets infected with Hepatitis B,the body experiences acute jaundice or the normal jaundice that generally occurs.70%-80% of the infected people are capable to clear the virus completely from there body.But some people are not able to clear it up.Here,at this stage,these people can act in two different ways.
The first,where there liver gets continuously damaged and they develop the chronic Hepatitis condition.They continuously deal with the symptoms and problems of Hepatitis B and ultimately come to the doctor.
The second type of people are the persons,who act as a carrier of Hepatitis B virus.Such people are themselves asymptomatic but act as a major carrier of the virus.Such type of people responsible for spreading Hepatitis B majorly as they themselves don’t know about them being the carrier( being asymptomatic)
In India 2-10% of the people are infected from Hepatitis B virus( near about 4 crore).The most infected cases are present in China and second is India.About 6 lac people die every year due to Hepatitis B which proves that it is a very serious disease.
NEED FOR BLOOD TEST
The first and the basic need or importance of performing the blood test is to ensure the presence or absence of Hepatitis B infection.
Secondly,the blood test clears the exact stage of infection.The stage of infection indicates whether the virus is current present in body or was present in the past.
Blood test is also needed to identify viral load,i.e. the exact amount of virus present.The replicating nature of virus that means multiplying nature of virus can also be diagnosed through blood test.It ensures whether the virus is replicating or not.If it replicates then the viral load increases with time.
Blood tests also provide with the complications(if any) and the exact damage (if any) caused to the liver.
Hepatitis B can be transferred from the infected one through following habits-
#unchecked blood transmission
#unsafe syringes or injection
#illicit injections by drugs
#from mother to baby(vertical transmission)
#tattoos using same needles
#shaving in saloon using same blade
#using toothbrush of infected person
But the important thing to understand is that it does not gets spread through water,food,casual contacts like shaking hands.It is a blood borne disease,that generally gets transmitted through blood.
HOW THE VIRUS DAMAGES THE LIVER
At primary stage,the virus itself causes direct injury to the liver cells.It is called acute viral Hepatitis.But after this,the overall problem our body faces,is actually the reaction of our body’s immune mechanism.Our immune system tries to fight with the Hepatitis B virus.But this attempt or the process of eliminating the Hepatitis B virus done by our immune system cause damage to our liver.
OVERALL JOURNEY OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS
Most of the infected adults are able to clear the virus.But some infected adults do develop chronic Hepatitis B and act as a carrier of virus.
Those who acquire infection in childhood are much more likely to have chronic Hepatitis B.It ultimately leads to chronic active Hepatitis with the age,which means the virus damages the liver like termite with slow pace.Over a period of time,chronic hepatitis may lead to liver cirrhosis,increasing the risk of liver cancer.Also it can lead to liver failure.
Progression of Hepatitis B occurs insidiously means subtly and gradually,usually over several decades.
Course is determined primarily by the age at which the Hepatitis B viral infection is acquired.Earlier the age you get the infection,prolonged will be the infection.
Course is also determined by severity of interaction between virus and the body’s immune system.Severe the interaction,higher the damage and result in higher complications.
# Treatment with anti viral drugs result in suppressing the viral reproduction in about 10%-90% of the patients with Hepatitis B because of which the inflammation in liver gets reduced and your blood tests gets improved,which means the viral load,replication and jaundice level gets reduced.Regular use of anti viral drugs,reduce the complications like liver cirrhosis or liver failure.
#But at the same time,only about half of the people treated achieve a sustained viral suppression.Along with this,relapse is very much common,as Hepatitis B virus is very much stubborn.Its mutations create the basic problem.And unfortunately,medication do not completely cure the infection.
#Hepatitis B is preventable through vaccine.All children should receive the vaccine.
#Adults at high risk should be vaccinated.
#Unvaccinated people who are exposed to the virus,should be determined and specific immune globulin (HBIG) should be given to them.