Diabetes is a physical disorder,where the blood glucose level goes too high.A condition where the body glucose cannot be used by the body properly.This article is going to explain every aspect related to diabetes.
WHAT IS DIABETES?
In a normal condition,when we eat food,carbohydrate content of food breaksdown into glucose(also referred as sugar),which is essential for energy.This glucose is carried by the bloodstream to different needy cells of body.Here the body detects the rising blood sugar level. Insulin helps sugar to move from blood into cells of body and get energy from the food we eat.Insulin is a harmone released by beta cells in your pancreas.The bloodstream then takes the glucose and insulin to every cell.Cells need sugar to provide energy to the body.Sugar level goes up from the source of food we eat.Insulin helps to lower the sugar level in cells.
Cell walls have little locks known as receptors.Insulin acts like a key to open the cell door so that glucose enters the cells,and give energy. In simple language,it is insulin which allows the glucose to get into the cells,which gives us energy.
In the condition where the glucose level in blood goes down,liver releases the stored extra sugar,for such condition.And again when the glucose level rises,pancreas release insulin to lower down the level.The body functioning is best when the glucose level is at the right level.The functioning gets disturbed when it rises too high or goes too low.The optimum or right level of glucose in body is achieved by balancing the glucose and the insulin level.The glucose and insulin level optimization depends on liver,pancreas and the food we eat.
TYPES OF DIABETES
A diabetic patient has such a blood sugar level disorder in the body where the body’s sugar level goes high due to mainly two reasons.First,either the insulin formation is restricted by the pancreas or the insulin produced is not able to let glucose enter the cell walls in the required amount.This distinguishes diabetes into 2 types-
TYPE 1 DIABETES-In type 1 diabetes,the pancreas fully stops making insulin because of an autoimmune response where the body destroys the beta cells responsible for producing insulin.People with type 1 diabetes must take insulin everyday.This type of diabetes is usually diagnosed more often in children and young adults.A patient having type 1 diabetes,when consumes food,the carbohydrates in it breaks down into glucose,and this glucose is carried by the bloodstream normally.But when the sugar level rises in the blood,there is no insulin present in body to lower it,hence the sugar level rises,resulting into type 1 diabetes.
1)The body tries to lower down the level of increased sugar level through kidneys resulting in frequent urination.As the kidneys filter the glucose out from the blood,they also take plenty of water along it making the person thirsty,more often than usual.
2)As glucose cannot be absorbed by the cells,the person starts feeling tired,lethargic and finds difficult to do his daily routine work.
3)But as the body still needs the energy,it starts to break down the fat tools ,which leads to weight loss.
4)Being hungry more often than usual,is another symptom of diabetes.
5)Due to increased amount of glucose level in body,glucose can also build up in the lens at the front of the eye,resulting in blurred vision.
6)A high level of glucose in blood may cause more bacteria than usual to breed in wound and restrict it to heal fast.
TYPE 2 DIABETES-In this type of diabetes,the body prevents the insulin it makes from working properly.The body may make some insulin but not enough.90% of the diabetic patients have type 2 diabetes.Generally,it is found in the people above the age of 40.Reason behind type 2 diabetes may be either the insulin produced is not working properly or the amount of insulin produced by the body is not enough.This can be due to overweight of a person as more fat in the body restricts insulin to open the cell doors for the glucose to absorb inside the cells.However,a person with a perfect weight may also suffer from type 2 diabetes.
In type 2 diabetes,the carbohydrates consumed by the body breaksdown into glucose which is carried out by the bloodstream normally.When the glucose level rises,pancreas secret insulin to provide energy to cells but the extra fat deposits restrict the insulin to work properly.Due to fat deposits,insulin is not able to open the cell door,and lets the glucose absorbed into the cells.As a result,the blood sugar level rises in the body.To keep the balance,pancreas start producing more insulin which results in increased level of insulin and glucose both.Further,as cells don’t receive glucose,they send signal to liver,to release the extra stored glucose which contributes in enhancing the blood glucose level.
The symptoms of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are same.But the Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can have faster onset and be more dramatic,whereas symptoms of Type 2 can be more difficult to detect and are slightly more complex which means its symptoms come slowly and some people don’t have any symptoms at all because of which people remain unaware of having diabetes.
Diabetes is a disorder that can be only managed rather than being treated.It can be managed initially by changing the food habits and doing exercises or yoga to loose weight.But when it becomes progressive,it needs medicine to manage along with a carefully planned diet and physically activities.Also,Blood pressure levels and cholesterol must be controlled along with diabetes.